Science (from the Latin word scientia, meaning “knowledge”) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which study abstract concepts. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences actually constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.
Science is based on research, which is commonly conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies. The practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, and environmental protection.
FUTURE TRENDS IN SCIENCE – BY 2040
Genetically engineered embryos
We’ve come so far with genetic engineering. Since its beginnings in selective breeding, we have been able to refine our methods significantly over recent years with increasing knowledge around deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and our ability to manipulate it.
In 1974 the first genetically engineered animal was born, but recent breakthroughs in how readily we can engineer genes have accelerated this research to new heights. Revolutionary CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) systems have reduced the price, time and complexity of genetic engineering.
Editing out disease
With today’s CRISPR technology, we’re already starting to cure diseases, with hundreds of clinical trials investigating gene therapy in adults as treatment for genetic conditions, some types of cancer, diabetes, heart disease and HIV/AIDS. In 20 years’ time, could we be targeting thousands of deadly genetic diseases directly in the human embryo and stopping disease even before birth?
Designing your perfect baby
With new powerful genetic engineering tools and the ability to modify human DNA, could we go beyond correcting genetic conditions and start to produce designer babies? As well as being disease-free, could we start gifting traits such as better muscle structure, metabolism or intelligence? This would mean steady changes to the human gene pool over time as genetic mutations pass through generations and is a topic wrapped in controversy around social, ethical and moral issues.
Frozen in time
Freezing biological samples without damaging them (cryopreservation) has worked well for decades on a small scale, with minimal samples of liquid or tissue, such as red blood cells, sperm, and embryos, reliably frozen and thawed without risking the quality of the sample.
Developments in cryopreservation have the potential to open untold possibilities around genetic and medical applications. As the length of time samples can be viably stored increases, could we eventually reach a position where we could:
- Engineer synthetic blood or develop new blood types that could then be stored cryogenically, potentially indefinitely, eradicating blood shortages or blood-related afflictions?
- Store perfect or modified genetic samples collected over time, to be presented as part of a “designer” catalogue?
- Explore environmental biobanking (a biorepository of biological samples) – why only preserve and modify genetically superior human specimens when the possibility exists to engineer our entire natural environment?
Technology to watch – Genome analysis | Gene expression and molecular cloning | Next-generation sequencing | Freezing and cryogenics
FOOD SECURITY – GROWING WORLD’S APPETITE
A growing population
The world’s population is increasing at breakneck speed, if current trends continue the population will exceed 9 billion by 2040. This will cause strain on our planet, and for scientists, maintaining the health of the planet is a primary goal.
Protecting food and water
From insecticide contamination in eggs to salmonella scares in baby formula, concerns around food safety rarely leave the news. The safety of our food can be compromised both inadvertently through pesticide contamination and through purposeful adulteration. As the global food market becomes increasingly stressed, managing the safety of our food will remain a top priority.
Plastics in the ocean is a current global crisis, but scientists have begun to push the frontiers of sustainable and degradable bioplastics for the future, where the term ‘benign by design’ is paramount. Our everyday packaging and casing materials are set to take us back to a time of more natural based materials, only with a modern twist.
Graphene is also set to aid the global drinking water scarcity crisis with its fantastic ability to sieve salty and dirty water into drinkable water, filtering out small nanoparticles, organic molecules, and large and common salts, providing fresh water to places with drinkable water scarcity.
Over the next 20 years, we can expect to see renewed focus on increasing crop production yields across the globe. Continued efforts will be needed to help subsistence farmers in some of the world’s poorest areas, and a rise in high-tech indoor vertical farming and controlled-environment agriculture practices may see food produced in the middle of our biggest cities to help feed the population.
Protecting our crops will remain a crucial issue and seed banks, such as the Svalbard Global Seed Vault , will grow in importance to help combat pandemic plant diseases. The quality of the food you eat will rely on well-orchestrated government strategies and an ever-increasing prevalence of GM crops.
Plenty less fish in the sea
Whilst we will undoubtedly be eating farmed fish in 2040, fish from the sea might be a much rarer treat. In 2016, Dame Ellen MacArthur produced a report stating that in the future, there will be more plastic than fish in the sea.
Meeting the meat demand
By 2040, the amount of meat being consumed is likely to decrease – with a rise in low-meat diets and lab-produced ‘meat’ making its way to your dinner plate.
Technology to watch – Mass spectrometry | Food & beverage analyzers | High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
HEALTHCARE – The future of healthcare is personalized
In 20 years’ time, your healthcare will be increasingly personalized to your genetic and biochemical makeup. In the future, the way doctors predict, prevent, diagnose and treat you when you are ill may all be tailored just for you.
Getting to know you
At-home personal genome testing, next-generation sequencing and gene editing technology can all provide doctors with a wealth of information about your own personal genetic make-up. This genetic data, combined with metabolomics (the study of metabolites), will help doctors to predict drug responses and risk of developing certain diseases. Examples of personalized medicine in practice can already be seen in the use of companion diagnostics and immunotherapy in cancer patients.
Prevention is better than cure
Scientists hope that modern technology will enable doctors to prevent diseases before they even make you unwell. Wearable health technology and ultrasensitive tests to monitor health and the earliest predictors of disease, could enable doctors to stay one step ahead of your illness.
Catching it early
Increased understanding of how diseases are caused, and how they progress, means that illnesses could be diagnosed much earlier and lead to more effective treatments. This is increasingly important with an ever-expanding and ageing population. So how might this be done? It’s all about biomarkers.
- New clinical biomarkers – research is identifying more of the molecules, genes, or characteristics that help identify a specific disease, pathological or physiological process, meaning that we can identify a disease with more certainty.
- Liquid biopsies – modern, less invasive liquid biopsy methods enable doctors to see biomarkers in the blood without the need for traditional tissue biopsies.
- Ultrasensitive tests – advances in technology, such as ultrasensitive immunoassays, enable scientists to identify biomarkers at increasingly low levels. Ultrasensitive tests could allow diseases to be diagnosed early.
The hospital at your bedside
Point-of-care developments mean that in the future, you could be diagnosed with serious illnesses at your bedside rather than waiting for samples to be analyzed by a lab, using:
- Portable laboratory diagnostic platforms that miniaturize complex laboratory tests such as PCR for healthcare providers
- Novel hand-held scanners or smartphone technology
Back at home, outside of the healthcare environment, non-invasive monitors will be able to track your health as you go about your daily life.
Antimicrobial resistance will be a growing concern in the future, with microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, genetically adapting in response to treatment with an antimicrobial drug so that the drug is no longer effective. This could mean that common infections that are curable today could become untreatable and pose a high health risk if we don’t act now.
While antibiotics will continue to be used to treat bacterial infections, antibiotic-resistance is not the only concern. Antibiotics can kill the natural healthy bacteria in the microbiome- a complex ecosystem of hundreds of different types of microbes, including bacteria, fungi and viruses, that reside naturally in the gut and other places within the body and that play an important role in protecting us against infectious diseases. Disruption in gut microbiota can enable antibiotic-resistant bacteria to increase and take over, leaving the individual open to an untreatable infection that could easily spread to others. As we learn more about our relationship with these microbial communities and their influence on human health and disease, the door will open to new diagnostics and treatments for infectious disease.
Technology to watch – Point-of-care testing | Clinical genetics | Next-generation sequencing
ENERGY – Power-up
Our secret sun
For years there have been concerns over our dwindling natural energy sources. But new possibilities are arising all the time, such as nuclear fusion and renewable energy. And if all else fails, we will always have the Earth’s sun to learn from. Physicists believe recreating the sun inside a lab is just around the corner.
Scientists like Dr. Alexandru Boboc, Culham Center for Fusion Energy (CCFE), UK, are on a mission to benefit future generations by exploiting the sun’s trade secret – nuclear fusion.
Plants to the rescue
As fossil fuels continue to deplete quickly, an alternative avenue will come to our rescue – agriculture.
Sugarcane is already used in Brazil for the generation of bioethanol fuel, returning eight times more energy than is invested, but are there better options?
- Cellulose contained in fibrous plants has huge potential as a future source of sustainable, low-carbon cellulosic biofuels. Researchers at the Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology have recently examined enzymes that can break down cellulose for bioethanol production
- Beer… fermentation broths containing ethanol, such as used for beer, have recently been converted to a more useful biofuel, butanol. Butanol is a better replacement for petrol than ethanol, as ethanol mixes too easily with water and is corrosive to engines.
Low energy, high output
A large energy cost is required to power all of our current electronic equipment. Recent developments and investments in gallium nitride are set to slash these energy costs and deliver us small and faster electronics in the future, cutting the global demand for electricity by up to 20%.
As energy production is set to increase by 2040, storing energy for future use will become a significant issue. Developments in materials science will provide stationary storage systems that would serve as ‘banks’ for energy. Scientists such as Professor Silke Christiansen, Freie Universität Berlin, and Helmholtz Center for Materials and Energy, are currently using correlative microscopy to understand, analyze and identify artificial and natural materials that can serve as these energy banks and help supply future demands.
Scientists at work
Your morning commute into the lab may look very similar in 2040, but will it take advantage of future fashion developments? Graphene is the thinnest material on earth, it is 200 times stronger than steel , and is touted to become common wearable material in the future. Dr Aravind Vijayaraghavan, of Manchester University, has already found a way to use it to make the soles of our shoes more durable. Twenty years from now, its other unique electronic properties could be exploited to develop smart clothing that monitors your vital signs , all on the way to the lab.
Take your foot off the gas
Electric cars and vehicles will dominate the roads of the future, and it’s likely that you’ll be traveling to the lab, lectures and conferences via electric vehicles. With extensive funding dedicated towards cleaner vehicles, extended battery life, and recycling of car batteries, you can expect an electric car to get you where you need to be.
But will it be you at the wheel, or will you be able to put your feet up, catch a few extra minutes of sleep, or finish your grant application? Gallium nitride is set to be part of your everyday commute to work in the future, working as the eyes of your autonomous self-driving cars and boosting the power output in the inverters of the electric cars.
Just think about it
The way we communicate has changed dramatically over the past 20 years, and there’s little doubt it will change even quicker over the next two decades. Imagine meeting a new colleague and seeing their name, social media profiles, scientific publications and even their political leanings or favorite food at the same time thanks to further advancements in augmented reality, which supplements your world view with an array of digital information.
Imagine returning after a day in the lab and letting your home choose what you watch, eat and even help plan your schedule for tomorrow, as products ranging from fridges to door handles predict your needs and desires via a network of sensors and algorithms.
Imagine being able to communicate with someone, or even your scientific equipment, by sending your thoughts through a network directly to them – it may seem far-fetched, but scientists are already working on mind-reading programs that can translate brain activity into written or spoken words. Then imagine collaborating with someone on the other side of the world thanks to software which can translate your words, or thoughts, in real time.
Whatever happens, one thing is certain: communication between scientists on a global scale is entering a crucial phase as we work to accelerate scientific progress and make the world a healthier place.
Technology to watch – GCMS – Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry | Electron Microscopy | Graphene
Different branches in Science
Acarology – study of mites and ticks | Accountancy – measurement, processing, analyzing, reporting and communication of financial information about economic entity and activities | Aceology – science of remedies, or of therapeutics; iamatology. | Acology – study of medical remedies | Acoustics – science of sound | Adenology – study of glands | Aedoeology – science of generative organs | Aerobiology – study of airborne organisms | Aerodonetics – science or study of gliding | Aerodynamics – dynamics of gases; science of movement in a flow of air or gas | Aerolithology – study of aerolites; meteorites | Aerology – study of the atmosphere | Aeronautics – study of navigation through air or space | Aerophilately – collecting of air-mail stamps | Aerostatics – science of air pressure; art of ballooning | Agonistics – art and theory of prize-fighting | Agriology – comparative study of primitive peoples | Agrobiology – study of plant nutrition; soil yields | Agrology – study of agricultural soils | Agronomics – study of productivity of land | Agrostology – science or study of grasses | Alethiology – study of truth | Algedonics – science of pleasure and pain | Algology – study of algae or the study of pain | Anaesthesiology – study of anaesthetics | Anaglyptics – art of carving in bas-relief | Anagraphy – art of constructing catalogues | Anatomy – study of the structure of the body | Andragogy – theory and practice of education of adults | Anemology – study of wind | Angiology – study of blood flow and lymphatic system | Anthropobiology – study of human biology | Anthropology – study of human cultures | Aphnology – science of wealth | Apiology – study of bees | Arachnology – study of arachnids | Archaeology – study of human material remains | Archelogy – study of first principles | Archology – science of the origins of government | Arctophily – study of teddy bears | Areology – study of Mars | Aretaics – science of virtue | Aristology – science or art of dining | Aromachology – study of smell and odor | Arthrology – study of joints | Arthropodology – study of arthropods like insects and arachnids | Astacology – science of crayfish | Astheniology – study of diseases of weakening and aging | Astrobotany – study of plants in space | Astrogeology – study of extraterrestrial geology | Astronomy – study of celestial bodies | Astrophysics – study of behaviour of interstellar matter | Astroseismology – study of star oscillations | Atmology – the science of aqueous vapor | Audiology – study of hearing | Autecology – study of ecology of one species | Autology – scientific study of oneself | Auxology – science of growth | Avionics – science of electronic devices for aircraft | Axiology – science of the ultimate nature of value
Bacteriology – study of bacteria | Balneology – science of the therapeutic use of baths | Barodynamics – science of the support and mechanics of bridges | Barology – study of gravitational force | Batology – the study of brambles | Bibliology – study of books | Bibliotics – study of documents to determine authenticity | Bioecology – study of interaction of life in the environment | Biology – study of life | Biochemistry – study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism | Biometrics – study of biological measurement for security purposes | Bionomics – study of organisms interacting in their environments | Botany – study of plants | Bromatology – study of food | Bryology – study of mosses and liverworts
Cacogenics – study of racial degeneration | Caliology – study of bird’s nests | Calorifics – study of heat | Cambistry – science of international exchange | Campanology – art of bell ringing | Carcinology – study of crabs and other crustaceans | Cardiology – study of the heart | Caricology – study of sedges | Carpology – study of fruit | Cartography – science of making maps and globes | Cartophily – hobby of collecting cigarette cards | Castrametation – art of designing a camp | Catacoustics – science of echoes or reflected sounds | Catalactics – science of commercial exchange | Catechectics – art of teaching by question and answer | Cell Biology – study of the different structures and functions of both eukaryote and prokaryote cells | Cetology – study of whales and dolphins | Chalcography – art of engraving on copper or brass | Chalcotriptics – art of taking rubbings from ornamental brasses | Chaology – study of chaos or chaos theory | Characterology – study of development of character | Chemistry – study of properties and behaviours of substances | Chionology – study of snow | Chirocosmetics – beautifying the hands; art of manicure | Chirography – study of handwriting or penmanship | Chirology – study of the hands | Chiropody – medical science of feet | Chorology – science of the geographic description of anything | Chrematistics – study of wealth; political economy | Chronobiology – study of biological rhythms | Chrysology – study of precious metals | Ciselure – art of chasing metal | Climatology – study of climate | Clinology – study of aging or individual decline after maturity | Codicology – study of manuscripts | Coleopterology – study of beetles and weevils | Cometology – study of comets | Conchology – study of shells | Coprology – study of feces | Cosmetology – study of cosmetics | Cosmology – study of the universe | Craniology – study of the skull | Criminology – study of crime; criminals | Cryobiology – study of life under cold conditions | Cryptology – study of codes | Cryptozoology – study of animals for whose existence there is no conclusive proof | Ctetology – study of the inheritance of acquired characteristics | Cyclonology – study of tropical cyclones, e.g. hurricanes | Cynology – scientific study of dogs | Cytology – study of living cells
Dactyliology – study of rings | Dactylography – study of fingerprints | Dactylology – study of sign language | Deltiology – collection and study of picture postcards | Demography – study of population | Demology – study of human behaviour | Dendrochronology – study of tree rings | Dendrology – study of trees | Dentistry – study of Teeth | Deontology – theory or study of moral obligation | Dermatoglyphics – study of skin patterns and fingerprints | Dermatology – study of skin | Desmology – study of ligaments | Diabology – study of devils | Diagraphics – art of making diagrams or drawings | Dialectology – study of dialects | Dioptrics – study of light refraction | Diplomatics – science of deciphering ancient writings and texts | Diplomatology – study of diplomats | Docimology – art of assaying | Dosiology – study of doses | Dramaturgy – art of producing and staging dramatic works | Dysgenics – study of racial degeneration | Dysteleology – study of purposeless organs
Ecclesiology – study of church affairs | Eccrinology – study of excretion | Ecology – study of environment | Economics – study of material wealth (production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services) | Edaphology – study of soils | Egyptology – study of ancient Egypt | Ekistics – study of human settlement | Electrochemistry – study of relations between electricity and chemicals | Electrology – study of electricity | Electrostatics – study of static electricity | Embryology – study of embryos | Emetology – study of vomiting | Emmenology – study of menstruation | Endemiology – study of local diseases | Endocrinology – study of glands | Energetics – study of energy under transformation | Engineering Studies – study of engineering | Enigmatology – study of enigmas | Entomology – study of insects | Entozoology – study of parasites that live inside larger organisms | Enzymology – study of enzymes | Ephebiatrics – branch of medicine dealing with adolescence | Epidemiology – study of diseases; epidemics | Epileptology – study of epilepsy | Epistemology – study of grounds of knowledge | Eremology – study of deserts | Ergology – study of effects of work on humans | Ergonomics – study of people at work | Escapology – study of freeing oneself from constraints | Eschatology – study of death; final matters | Ethnogeny – study of origins of races or ethnic groups | Ethnology – study of cultures | Ethnomethodology – study of everyday communication | Ethnomusicology – study of comparative musical systems | Ethology – study of natural or biological character | Ethonomics – study of economic and ethical principles of a society | Etiology – science of causes; especially of disease | Etymology – study of origins of words | Euthenics – science concerned with improving living conditions | Exobiology – study of extraterrestrial life | Exoplanetology – study of exoplanets
Felinology – study of felines | Finance – science or study of money management | Floristry – art of cultivating and selling flowers | Fluviology – study of watercourses | Folkloristics – study of folklore and fables | Forestry – study of the creation, management, use, conservation, and repair of forests and associated resources | Futurology – study of future
Garbology – study of garbage | Gastroenterology – study of stomach; intestines | Gastronomy – study of fine dining | Gemmology – study of gems and jewels | Gender Studies – study of gender | Genealogy – study of descent of families | Genesiology – study of reproduction and heredity | Genethlialogy – art of casting horoscopes | Geochemistry – study of chemistry of the earth’s crust | Geochronology – study of measuring geological time | Geography – study of surface of the earth and its inhabitants | Geology – study of the rocks of a planet | Geomorphogeny – study of the origins of land forms | Geoponics – study of agriculture | Geotechnics – study of increasing habitability of the earth | Geratology – study of decadence and decay | Gerocomy – study of old age | Gerontology – study of the elderly; aging | Gigantology – study of giants | Glaciology – study of ice ages and glaciation | Glossology – study of language; study of the tongue | Glyptography – art of engraving on gems | Glyptology – study of gem engravings | Gnomonics – the art of measuring time using sundials | Gnosiology – study of knowledge; philosophy of knowledge | Gnotobiology – study of life in germ-free conditions | Graminology – study of grasses | Grammatology – study of systems of writing | Graphemics – study of systems of representing speech in writing | Graphology – study of handwriting | Gromatics – science of surveying | Gynaecology – study of women’s physiology | Gyrostatics – study of rotating bodies
Haemataulics – study of movement of blood through blood vessels | Hagiology – study of saints | Halieutics – study of fishing | Hamartiology – study of sin | Harmonics – study of musical acoustics | Hedonics – part of ethics or psychology dealing with pleasure | Helcology – study of ulcers | Heliology – science of the sun | Helioseismology – study of sun’s interior by observing its surface oscillations | Helminthology – study of worms | Hematology – study of blood | Heortology – study of religious feasts | Hepatology – study of liver | Heraldry – study of coats of arms | Heredity – study of passing of traits from parents to offspring | Heresiology – study of heresies | Herpetology – study of reptiles and amphibians | Hierology – science of sacred matters | Hippiatrics – study of diseases of horses | Hippology – study of horses | Histology – study of the tissues of organisms | Histopathology – study of changes in tissue due to disease | Historiography – study of writing history | Historiology – study of history | Homiletics – art of preaching | Home Economics – deals with home and economics | Hoplology – study of weapons | Horography – art of constructing sundials or clocks | Horology – science of time measurement | Horticulture – study of gardening | Hydrobiology – study of aquatic organisms | Hydrodynamics – study of movement in liquids | Hydrogeology – study of ground water | Hydrography – study of investigating bodies of water | Hydrokinetics – study of motion of fluids | Hydrology – study of water resources | Hydrometeorology – study of atmospheric moisture | Hydropathy – study of treating diseases with water | Hyetology – science of rainfall | Hygiastics – science of health and hygiene | Hygienics – study of sanitation; health | Hygiology – hygienics; study of cleanliness | Hygroscopy – study of humidity | Hygrometry – science of humidity | Hymnography – study of writing hymns | Hymnology – study of hymns | Hypnology – study of sleep; study of hypnosis | Hypsography – science of measuring heights
Iamatology – study of remedies | Iatrology – treatise or text on medical topics; study of medicine | Iatromathematics – archaic practice of medicine in conjunction with astrology | Ichnography – art of drawing ground plans; a ground plan | Ichnology – science of fossilized footprints | Ichthyology – study of fish | Iconography – study of drawing symbols | Iconology – study of icons; symbols | Ideogeny – study of origins of ideas | Ideology – science of ideas; system of ideas used to justify behaviour | Idiomology – study of idiom, jargon or dialect | Idiopsychology – study of the psychology of one’s own mind | Immunogenetics – study of genetic characteristics of immunity | Immunology – study of immunity | Immunopathology – study of immunity to disease | Insectology – study of insects | Irenology – study of peace | Iridology – study of the iris; diagnosis of disease based on the iris of the eye
Kalology – study of beauty | Karyology – study of cell nuclei | Kinematics – study of motion | Kinesics – study of gestural communication | Kinesiology – study of human movement and posture | Kinetics – study of forces producing or changing motion | Koniology – study of atmospheric pollutants and dust | Ktenology – science of putting people to death | Kymatology – study of wave motion
Labeorphily – collection and study of beer bottle labels | Larithmics – study of population statistics | Laryngology – study of larynx | Lepidopterology – study of butterflies and moths | Leprology – study of leprosy | Lexicology – study of words and their meanings | Lexigraphy – art of definition of words | Lichenology – study of lichens | Limacology – study of slugs | Limnobiology – study of freshwater ecosystems | Limnology – study of bodies of fresh water | Linguistics – study of language | Liturgiology – study of liturgical forms and church rituals | Loimology – study of plagues and epidemics | Loxodromy – study of sailing along rhumb-lines
Magirics – art of cookery | Magnanerie – art of raising silkworms | Magnetics – study of magnetism | Malacology – study of molluscs | Malariology – study of malaria | Mammalogy – study of mammals | Manège – art of horsemanship | Mariology – study of the Virgin Mary | Marine Biology– Study of the Oceans Ecosystem | Mastology – study of mammals | Mathematics – study of magnitude, number, and forms | Mazology – mammalogy; study of mammals | Mechanics – study of action of force on bodies | Meconology – study of or treatise concerning opium | Media studies – study of mass media | Melittology – study of bees | Melology – study of music; musicology | Mereology – study of part-whole relationships | Mesology – ecology | Metallogeny – study of the origin and distribution of metal deposits | Metallography – study of the structure and constitution of metals | Metallurgy – study of alloying and treating metals | Metaphysics – study of principles of nature and thought | Metapolitics – study of politics in theory or abstract | Metapsychology – study of nature of the mind | Metascience – study of science | Meteoritics – study of meteors | Meteorology – study of weather | Methodology – system of methods used in a particular area of study or activity | Methyology – study of alcohol | Metrics – study of versification | Metrology – science of weights and measures | Microanatomy – study of microscopic tissues | Microbiology – study of microscopic organisms | Microclimatology – study of local climates | Micrology – study or discussion of trivialities | Micropalaeontology – study of microscopic fossils | Microphytology – study of very small plant life | Microscopy – study of minute objects | Mineralogy – study of minerals | Molinology – study of mills and milling | Momilogy – study of mummies | Morphology (disambiguation) – study of forms and the development of structures | Muscology – study of mosses | Museology – study of museums | Musicology – study of music | Mycology – study of funguses | Myology – study of muscles | Myrmecology – study of ants | Mythology – study of myths; fables; tales
Naology – study of church or temple architecture | Nasology – study of the nose | Nautics – art of navigation | Nematology – study of nematodes | Neonatology – study of newborn babies | Neossology – study of nestling birds | Nephology – study of clouds | Nephrology – study of the kidneys | Neurobiology – study of anatomy of the nervous system | Neurology – study of nervous system | Neuropsychology – study of relation between brain and behaviour | Neurypnology – study of hypnotism | Neutrosophy – study of the origin and nature of philosophical neutralities | Nomology – the science of the laws; especially of the mind | Noology – science of the intellect | Nosology – study of diseases | Nostology – study of senility | Notaphily – collecting of bank-notes and cheques | Numerology – pseudoscientific study of numbers | Numismatics – study of coins | Nymphology – study of nymphs | Nanotechnology – study of nanite
Obstetrics – study of midwifery | Oceanography – study of oceans | Oceanology – study of oceans | Odontology – study of teeth | Odonatology– study of dragonflies and damselflies | Oenology – study of wines | Oikology – science of housekeeping | Olfactology – study of the sense of smell | Ombrology – study of rain | Oncology – study of tumours | Oneirology – study of dreams | Onomasiology – study of nomenclature | Onomastics – study of proper names | Ontology – science of pure being; the nature of things | Oology – study of eggs | Ophiology – study of snakes | Ophthalmology – study of eye diseases | Optics – study of light | Optology – study of sight | Optometry – science of examining the eyes | Orchidology – study of orchids | Ornithology – study of birds | Orology – study of mountains | Orthoepy – study of correct pronunciation | Orthography – study of spelling | Orthopterology – study of cockroaches | Oryctology – mineralogy or paleontology | Osmics – scientific study of smells | Osmology – study of smells and olfactory processes | Osphresiology – study of the sense of smell | Osteology – study of bones | Otology – study of the ear | Otorhinolaryngology – study of ear, nose and throat
Paedology – study of children | Paidonosology – study of children’s diseases; pediatrics | Palaeoanthropology – study of early humans | Palaeobiology – study of fossil plants and animals | Palaeoclimatology – study of ancient climates | Palaeoichthyology – study of ancient fish | Palaeolimnology – study of ancient lakes | Palaeontology – study of fossils | Palaeopedology – study of early soils | Paleobotany – study of ancient plants | Paleo-osteology – study of ancient bones | Palynology – study of pollen | Papyrology – study of paper | Paradoxology – study of paradoxes | Parapsychology – study of unexplained mental phenomena | Parasitology – study of parasites | Paroemiology – study of proverbs | Parthenology – study of virgins | Pataphysics – science of imaginary solutions | Pathology – study of disease | Patrology – study of early Christianity | Pedagogics – study of teaching | Pedology – study of soils | Pelology – study of mud | Penology – study of crime and punishment | Periodontics – study of gums | Peristerophily – pigeon-collecting | Pestology – science of pests | Petrology – study of rocks | Pharmacognosy – study of drugs of animal and plant origin | Pharmacology – study of drugs | Pharology – study of lighthouses | Pharyngology – study of the throat | Phenology – study of organisms as affected by climate | Phenomenology – study of phenomena | Philately – study of postage stamps | Philematology – act or study of kissing | Phillumeny – collecting of matchbox labels | Philology – study of ancient texts; historical linguistics | Philosophy – science of knowledge or wisdom | Phoniatrics – study and correction of speech defects | Phonology – study of speech sounds | Photobiology – study of effects of light on organisms | Photonics – study of photons | Phraseology – study of phrases | Phrenology – study of bumps on the head | Phycology – study of algae and seaweeds | Physics – study of properties of matter and energy | Physiology – study of processes of life | Phytology – study of plants; botany | Piscatology – study of fishes | Pisteology – science or study of faith | Planetology – study of planets | Plutology – political economy; study of wealth | Pneumatics – study of mechanics of gases | Podiatry – study and treatment of disorders of the foot; chiropody | Podology – study of the feet | Polemology – study of war | Pomology – study of fruit-growing | Posology – science of quantity or dosage | Potamology – study of rivers | Praxeology – study of practical or efficient activity; science of efficient action | Primatology – study of primates | Proctology – study of rectum | Prosody – study of versification | Protistology – study of protists | Proxemics – study of man’s need for personal space | Psalligraphy – art of paper-cutting to make pictures | Psephology – study of election results and voting trends | Pseudology – art or science of lying | Pseudoptics – study of optical illusions | Psychobiology – study of biology of the mind | Psychogenetics – study of internal or mental states | Psychognosy – study of mentality, personality or character | Psychology – study of mind | Psychopathology – study of mental illness | Psychophysics – study of link between mental and physical processes | Pteridology – study of ferns | Pterylology – study of distribution of feathers on birds | Pyretology – study of fevers | Pyrgology – study of towers | Pyroballogy – study of artillery | Pyrography – study of woodburning | Pyrotechnics – study of combustion through fire or explosions
Quinology – study of quinine | Quantum Mechanics – a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles. | Queer theory – study of issues related to sexual orientation and gender identity.
Raciology – study of racial differences | Radiochemistry – study of ordinary chemical reactions under radioactive circumstances | Radiology – study of X-rays and their medical applications | Reflexology – study of reflexes | Rhabdology – knowledge or learning concerning divining rods | Rhabdology – art of calculating using numbering rods | Rheology – science of the deformation or flow of matter | Rheumatology – study of rheumatism | Rhinology – study of the nose | Rhochrematics – science of inventory management and the movement of products | Robotics – deals with the designing, construction, and operation of robots. | Runology – study of runes
Sarcology – study of fleshy parts of the body | Satanology – study of the devil | Scatology – study of excrement or obscene literature | Schematonics – art of using gesture to express tones | Sciagraphy – art of shading | Scripophily – collection of bond and share certificates | Sedimentology – study of sediment | Seismology – study of earthquakes | Selenodesy – study of the shape and features of the moon | Selenology – study of the moon | Semantics – study of meaning | Semantology – science of meanings of words | Semasiology – study of meaning; semantics | Semiology – study of signs and signals | Semiotics – study of signs and symbols | Serology – study of serums | Sexology – study of sexual behaviour | Siderography – art of engraving on steel | Siderology – study of iron and its alloys, including steel | Sigillography – study of seals | Significs – science of meaning | Silvics – study of tree’s life | Sindonology – study of the shroud of Turin | Sinology – study of China | Sitology – dietetics | Sociobiology – study of biological basis of human behaviour | Sociology – study of society | Somatology – science of substances | Sophiology – science of ideas | Soteriology – study of theological salvation | Spectrology – study of ghosts | Spectroscopy – study of spectra | Speleology – study and exploration of caves | Spermology – study of seeds | Sphagnology – study of peat moss | Sphragistics – study of seals and signets | Sphygmology – study of the pulse | Splanchnology – study of the entrails or viscera | Spongology – study of sponges | Stasiology – study of political parties | Statics – study of bodies and forces in equilibrium | Stellar Astronomy – study of stars, their origins, and their evolution. | Stemmatology – study of relationships between text | Stoichiology – science of elements of animal tissues | Stomatology – study of the mouth | Storiology – study of folk tales | Stratigraphy – study of geological layers or strata | Stratography – art of leading an army | Stylometry – studying literature by means of statistical analysis | Suicidology – study of suicide | Supramolecular chemistry – study of the chemistry of assembled molecular sub-units | Symbology – study of symbols | Symptomatology – study of symptoms of illness | Synecology – study of ecological communities | Synectics – study of processes of invention | Syntax – study of sentence structure | Syphilology – study of syphilis | Systematics – study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present | Systematology – study of systems
Taxidermy – art of curing and stuffing animals | Taxonomy – study of plant, animals and microorganisms classification | Tectonics – science of structure of objects, buildings and landforms | Tegestology – study and collecting of beer mats | Teleology – study of final causes; analysis in terms of purpose | Telmatology – study of swamps | Tempestology – study of tropical cyclones, e.g. hurricanes | Teratology – study of birth defects and later abnormalities in living organisms | Teuthology – study of cephalopods | Textology – study of the production of texts | Thalassography – science of the sea | Thanatology – study of death and its customs | Theriatrics – veterinary medicine | Theriogenology – study of animals’ reproductive systems | Thermodynamics – study of relation of heat to motion | Thermokinematics – study of motion of heat | Thermology – study of heat | Therology – study of wild mammals | Thremmatology – science of breeding domestic animals and plants | Threpsology – science of nutrition | Tidology – study of tides | Timbrology – study of postage stamps | Tocology – obstetrics; midwifery | Tokology – study of childbirth | Tonetics – study of pronunciation | Topology – study of places and their natural features | Toponymics – study of place-names | Toreutics – study of artistic work in metal | Toxicology – study of poisons | Toxophily – love of archery; archery; study of archery | Traumatology – study of wounds and their effects | Tribology – study of friction and wear between surfaces | Trichology – study of hair and its disorders | Trophology – study of nutrition | Tsiganology – study of gypsies | Turbology – study of tornadoes | Turnery – art of turning in a lathe | Typhlology – study of blindness and the blind | Typography – art of printing or using type | Typology (disambiguation) – study of types of things
Uranography – descriptive astronomy and mapping | Uranology – study of the heavens; astronomy | Urbanology – study of cities | Urenology – study of rust molds | Urology – study of urine; urinary tract
Venereology – study of venereal disease | Vexillology – study of flags | Victimology – study of victims | Vinology – scientific study of vines and winemaking | Virology – study of viruses | Vitrics – glassy materials; glassware; study of glassware | Volcanology – study of volcanoes | Vulcanology – study of volcanoes
Xylography – art of engraving on wood | Xylology – study of wood
Zenography – study of the planet Jupiter | Zooarchaeology – study of animal remains of archaeological sites | Zoochemistry – chemistry of animals | Zoogeography – study of geographic distribution of animals | Zoogeology – study of fossil animal remains | Zoology – study of animals | Zoonomy – animal physiology | Zoonosology – study of animal diseases | Zoopathology – study of animal diseases | Zoophysics – physics of animal bodies | Zoophysiology – study of physiology of animals | Zoophytology – study of plant-like animals | Zoosemiotics – study of animal communication | Zootaxy – science of classifying animals | Zootechnics – science of breeding animals | Zygology – science of joining and fastening | Zymology – science of fermentation | Zymurgy – branch of chemistry dealing with brewing and distilling | Zythology – study of beer
Sources / References https://future.selectscience.net/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branches_of_science